Inside iron and steel water pipes, it is recognised that corrosion (iron hydroxide oxide) normally will form. When a power station was shut down for maintenance in the 1960s, it was found, surprisingly, there was no corrosion in its steam pipes. It was then discovered that hydrated electron had prevented corrosion. The water treated by NMR PIPETECTOR® can generate hydrated electron when it is moved.
Corrosion blocks flow, discolours water making it unattractive and unusable for some applications and weakens pipes. Single cell bacterium, such as anaerobic sulphate reducing bacterium (SRB), can create pinhole leaks, causing damage and lead to difficult, time-consuming and expensive pipe replacement.
- NMR PIPETECTOR® converts corrosion to black rust (magnetite), which is 10 times smaller, does not dissolve in water and:
- Protects the pipe from corrosion
- Kills single cell bacterium
- Eliminates pinholes and restores pipe strength
- Prevents electrolysis between dissimilar metals (eg galvanised iron and copper)
- Prolongs the life of the pipe
- Once the corrosion, developed in water pipes, is changed to 100% black rust, it makes it possible to use the pipes almost indefinitely.
- No Electrical Connections are required.
- No Chemicals are used.
- The NMR has a Ten year Product Warranty.
- The NMR is completely Maintenance Free throughout its life time of a period in excess of Forty Years.
- No Side Stream Filtration or Reverse Osmosis equipment is required.
- No Chemical Inhibitors are needed in respect to Central Heating and Chilled water pipework systems.
- The NMR will prevent Electrolysis from occurring between dissimilar metals such as Galvanised Iron and Copper pipework.
- The NMR will prevent Discolouration in Hot and Cold water services to Baths, Showers and Wash Basins.
- The NMR Pipetector is Not a Magnetic Device.
- Discolouration of water by corrosion ceases.
- Uniquely, NMR PIPETECTOR® restores wall thickness and the strength of pipes.
- NMR PIPETECTOR® converts corrosion to black rust (magnetite), which has 10 times less volume, does not dissolve in water and practically removes any blockages.
- NMR PIPETECTOR® is installed on the outside of pipes up to 2 metres in diameter.
- Product Warranty is 10 years.
- Expected life is 40 years minimum.
NMR PIPETECTOR® is the only equipment which can change Corrosion (lron Hydroxide Oxide – FeO(OH)) to Black Rust (Magnetite – fe3Q4) without outflow of corrosion.
Comparison between NMR PIPETECTOR® and conventional method
NMR PIPETECTOR® can change FeO(OH) corrosion to Fe304 magnetite as follows:
- Water molecules and oxygen oxidise iron, which changes to iron hydroxide oxide.
- Corrosion(iron hydroxide oxide) is reduced when it receives negatively charged electrons (e-), and forms black coloured hard crystals of fine particles with the separation of H20 and 02 molecules and changes to very hard black coloured magnetite (Fe3Q4), whose cubic volume is one tenth that of corrosion. The magnetite hard layer bonds to the inner surface of the pipe and considerably decrease the blockage of corrosion in the pipe .
NMR re-arranges electronic bonds to break up big water clusters into small ones
What is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
The atomic nucleus of an atom having an odd atomic number, for example, hydrogen has the atomic number one, has a north and a south pole (see Figure 1 ).
If the specific length of the electromagnetic wave is applied to this polarized atomic nucleus of hydrogen, resonance is caused on the nucleus. This phenomenon is called nuclear magnetic resonance.
Activation of water molecules
The combined angle of an H-O-H water molecule (H2O) is 104.5° (see Figure 2), therefore, hydrogen is positively charged and oxygen is negatively charged. A negatively charged oxygen is attracted by a positively charged hydrogen. In water (H2O), molecules combined together to form big clusters (see Figure 3) normally 74 or more molecules. In this state, the position of a hydrated electron is inside of a big cluster. However, the position of hydrated electron on a small cluster is changed to outside of the cluster when the cluster is changed from big to small by the NMR effect of NMR PIPETECTOR®.
The NMR Effect
The NMR PIPETECTOR® generates a specific length of electromagnetic wave and causes the breakup of big clusters of water molecules into small clusters and makes them to resonate (spin). This resonant state continues more than 6 hours when water with this state moves by the power of natural drop or by a pump then hydrated electrons are discharged. Then, the corrosion(FeO(OH)), which may be present in the pipe, is changed to a black rust or magnetite film (Fe3O4) and is bonded to the pipe wall. This not only makes the pipe stronger it also protects the pipe wall from further corrosion and prolongs its life.